РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure.

Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography QEEG was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. The showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group.

Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state.

Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state. The dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies le to perceive fluctuations sounds which occurs as amplitude modulation generated by the two pure tones, or so-called beat, in the brain.

The beat in this phenomenon is generated within the brain and is referred to as a binaural beat. The superior olivary complex is believed to be the first nucleus that receives auditory information from both sides of the ears, and binaurally activated phase-sensitive neurons are also found in the inferior colliculus Kuwada et al.

The fluctuation in frequency equals the difference in the two pure tones that are presented. However, a classic study reported that the maximum difference in the two tones for which humans can perceive them as beat is 35 Hz; otherwise, 2 separate pure tones were perceived instead Oster, In addition to the difference in the 2 tones, the carrier tone, which is the lower tone of the 2 tones, is also involved in the beat perception.

The binaural beat induces an interesting effect termed the frequency following effect Moushegian et al. This effect can induce brain activity corresponding to the perceived beat. The process of brain activity synchronization to the perceived beat is called entrainment Wahbeh et al. Several studies have been conducted to investigate this effect and have attempted to determine the brain positions entrained by binaural beats.

An EEG experiment to investigate the brain responses to a Hz binaural beat with low and high carrier tones of Hz and 3, Hz, respectively, for 1. The showed that 40 Hz activity is evoked, and the lower carrier tone induced higher responses than the higher carrier tone at the fronto-central region Schwarz and Taylor, Other EEG studies have reported different. Presentation of 7- and Hz binaural beats to participants for 15 min led delta power to increase at the left temporal region for the 7-Hz binaural beat condition while gamma power increased for the Hz condition Lavallee et al.

Utilization of 3- and 6-Hz binaural beats on and 1, Hz carrier tones for 2 s. ERP responses were evoked at the left temporal region. The responses were higher for the Hz condition than the 1, Hz condition and higher for 3-Hz than for 6-Hz Pratt et al. These were also reported in their next study Pratt et al. Recording of EEG al at only T3 and T4 positions while delivering and Hz binaural beats on a mean Hz carrier tone to participants for 1 min was conducted. No change in alpha activity was detected in the Hz condition, while the left temporal region expressed a higher amplitude of beta activity than the right side in the Hz condition; however, clear evidence of a frequency following effect did not appear due to the of recording electrodes Vernon et al.

A magnetic field study noted that the right temporal region responded to a Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone within 1 s of exposure Draganova et al. Other magnetoencephalography MEG studies also reported similar findings. A 26 Hz auditory steady-state response ASSR occurred at the right parietal and left middle frontal regions by exposure to a Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone for ms was reported Chakalov et al.

One study showed symmetrical responses to 4 binaural beats corresponding to рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy. ASSRs were induced at the temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, but symmetry did not always occur. However, these finding also suggested that the cerebral cortex can be synchronized with binaural beats Karino et al. The brain responses to binaural beats by sweeping a beat for 16 s from 3- to Hz on a carrier tone with a mean frequency of Hz and found different polarities between the left and right auditory cortices.

These researchers also suggested that different brain processes occur for different frequency activities Ross et al. According to these findings, the responses of the brain to binaural beats remain debated; however, binaural beats can have behavioral effects, as suggested in several studies Lane et al. Several studies in literature have investigated different brain activities but one activity interested in nowadays lifestyle is theta activity and it is found during meditation.

Theta activity is a type of brain activity classified by the frequency range of 4—8 Hz. It is associated with the behavioral states of alertness, attention, orientation, and working memory including the enhancement of cognitive and perceptual performances Aftanas and Golocheikine, ; Stern et al.

Theta activity also indicates concentration, focused attention, and a meditative state, and general рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy and frontal midline theta rhythms are observed during meditation Takahashi et al.

РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

Meditation is the mental activity associated with attaining a deeply restful but fully alert state and is believed to reduce stress, which commonly occurs during daily life. One study claimed that 30 min of meditation is enough for a beginner to reduce stress Sharma, Peacefulness and the reduction of stress are important for improving brain functions, especially cortical brain functions Hankey and Shetkar, Theta activity has been utilized to investigate the meditative state by both general theta and frontal midline theta rhythms Takahashi et al.

Theta activity, during meditative state, is found at frontal and parietal-central regions but is not found at posterior region. This phenomenon is general theta activity. Theta activity must be found at frontal midline cortical position, specifically Fz position, which is considered as meditative state; and this is frontal midline theta rhythms.

However, modern lifestyles are often characterized as stressful and highly active, and thus, 30 min of meditation may not achieve a meditative state if one is concerned of their surroundings; in such cases, it may take longer than 30 min to achieve a deep meditative state. Interestingly, if 6-Hz binaural beat can enhance theta activity due to the frequency following effect and if such enhanced activity shows a similar pattern to a meditative state that can be induced within a short duration, binaural beats may have clear applications for meditation.

РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

With methodological differences in the primary stimuli parameters, i. This le to difficultly in comparing the brain responses to binaural beats and hinders valid discussions. In addition, to reduce stress in nowadays lifestyle meditation becomes an interesting procedure; if binaural beat can induce similar activity of meditative state, it can be used as stimulus for meditation induction.

Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the responses of the brain to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone using QEEG for 30 min of listening. The Hz carrier tone is chosen for the purpose of fair comparison with the existing works.

As studies have lacked QEEG recordings when evaluating the responses to binaural beats, we sought to use QEEG as a recording procedure in this study. The reasons for applying 6-Hz binaural beat are as follows: 6-Hz is the middle of theta activity, 4—8 Hz, so it can represent theta activity, and indicate more precisely that occurred responses are appeared due to the stimulus in theta range not in the others. Only theta activity was observed due to the frequency following effect of binaural beats, as a 6-Hz binaural beat is in the range of theta activity.

It was hypothesized that the power of the theta activity would be enhanced after listening to a 6-Hz binaural beat. Furthermore, binaural beats within theta activity have been utilized as stimuli in several studies, and thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat is selected for this investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of the brain to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a Hz carrier tone using QEEG with a min listening period. Experimental and control groups were included. The wall color of the room was white for neutral perceptions of emotion and mood, as reported by Sroykham et al.

The experimental station was setup as follows: an armchair faced the white wall at a distance of 3 m, and the height of the armchair was adjusted to the comfort of each participant. A footrest was also placed in front of the armchair at a position that was comfortable for each participant. The stimulus used in this study was a binaural beat stimulus that was specifically created for the experiment by providing two similar tones at slightly different frequencies.

The carrier tone of Hz was presented to the left ear, and the offset tone of Hz was presented to the right ear. Using the Sound Forge Pro Twenty-eight participants with an average age of The participants were allocated to experimental and control groups. The purpose of the study and the experimental procedures were described to all participants before participation, but details of the stimulus were not revealed. The experimental group was composed of 17 participants, 5 females and 12 males, with average age of The aims and procedures of the experiment were told to the participants.

All participants were asked to give written informed consent before participation in the study. The participants were free to stop their participation during the experiment or to withdraw themselves from the experiment for any reason. Each participant was asked to sit in the armchair within the experimental room in an upright position and to lay their feet on the footrest and relax. The size of participant's head was measured for fitting a suitably sized electrode cap. Each electrode was filled with conductive gel to reduce the impedance between each electrode рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy the scalp to improve the recordings and to minimize noise.

Two electrode cups with conductive paste were then clipped on both the right and left ear lobules as ground and reference, respectively. Consequently, 40 min of the experimental period began. The experimental period included 5 min of baseline recordings, 30 min of stimulus period, and a final 5 min of post-stimulus recording. The stimulus was provided рЯ•∞ meaning from a guy each participant based on the participant's group.

The stimulus of experimental group was a 6-Hz binaural beat while that of the control group was silence. However, all participants were told that the stimulus was already provided. Along the experimental period, EEG als were recorded, and participants were asked to continue to sit idly and to make as few movements as possible.

However, due to long experimental period, fatigue occurred in some participants. If the participants reported feelings of fatigue, a short duration of movements was permitted to release the fatigue.

РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

The als recorded during movement and eye blinking were not included in the analysis. During this 40 min of recording, all participants were asked to focus on the stimulus but can randomly think without did any kind of the meditation. After the min experimental period, the participants were again evaluated via the BRUMS to evaluate their emotional states after the experiment. The recorded EEG als included 40 min for each participant. Each recorded EEG al was separated as follows: 5 min of baseline recording, followed by 6 intervals of 5 min each along the stimulus period, and finally 5 min of post-stimulus recording.

A total of 8 intervals of 5 min each were recorded. Fast Fourier transformation FFT was performed on each selected al to convert the al from the time domain to the frequency domain. The absolute power of the theta activity was assessed for statistical analysis.

РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

All data analyses were conducted by NeuroGuide software. The reasons considering 5-min in each time-point were to provide uncomplicated comparison with literatures that investigate the responses in term of series of 5 min, i. Within the same group, paired t -tests were conducted to compare mean of absolute power of the theta activity between each interval and baseline, position-by-position. The comparisons were performed to indicate the time-point of increased FFT absolute power of theta activity upon listening to the stimulus for both the experimental and control groups.

In addition, paired t -tests were also conducted to compare the changes in the BRUMS scores before and after listening to the stimulus. The changes in theta activity were compared to determine whether the changes that occurred at each time-point were a result of the stimulus rather than idly sitting. The same statistical analyses were performed for the BRUMS scores to indicate the differences in emotional states between the 2 groups.

РЯ•∞ meaning from a guy

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